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Statute

November 15, 1999
(Adopted at the second plenary session, held on November 15, I999 and pending review by the Style Committee)

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, MEETING IN SPECIAL SESSION, HAVING

SEEN the report presented by the Chair of the Special Group to Implement the Recommendations of the Meetings of Ministers of Justice or of Ministers or Attorneys General of the Americas during the meeting of the Permanent Council of September 28, 1999 (CP/ACTA 1205/99);

RESOLVES:

To establish the Justice Studies Center for the Americas and to adopt the following

STATUTE OF THE JUSTICE STUDIES CENTER FOR THE AMERICAS

Having seen the report presented by the Chair of the Special Group to lmplement the Recommendations of the Meetings of Ministers of Justice or of Ministers or Attorneys General of the Americas during the rneeting of the Permanent Council of September 28, 1999 (CP/ACTA 1205/99);

Bearing in mind:

That the Head of State and Government, in the Plan of Action adopted at the Second Summit of the Americas, in Santiago, Chile, in April 1998, agreed to “establish a Justice Studies Center for the Americas, which will facilitate the training of justice sector personnel, the exchange of information and other forms of technical cooperation in the Hemisphere, in response to the particular requirements of each country”; and

That on the occasion of the Second Meeting of Ministers of Justice or of Ministers or Attorneys General of the Americas, in Lima, Peru. in March 1999, it was recommended that a group of government experts, open to participation by all of the delegations, be established, inter alia, to prepare draft Statutes of the Justice Studies Center of the Americas.

Considering

That the Permanent Council, in April 1999, established the Special Group, chaired by Peru and vice-chaired by Costa Rica and Trinidad and Tobago, to Implement the Recommendations of the Meetings of Ministers of Justice or of Ministers or Attorneys General of the Americas.

That the General Assembly, through resolution AG/RES.1615 (XX IX-O/99), supported and recognized “the progress being made by the Permanent Council´s Special Group to facilitate the meetings of government experts on the establishment of the Justice Studies Center of the Americas”.

That the special group on Justice, for purposes of furthering the implementation of the recommendations of the Second Meeting of Ministers of Justice or of Ministers or Attorneys General of the Americas, held four meetings of government experts to prepare the draft Statute of the Justice Studies Center of the Americas; and

That the Permanent Council, at its meeting of September 28, 1999, approved the draft Statute of the Justice Studies Center of the Americas; and

Recognizing the work of the Special Group to lmplement the Recommendations of the Meetings of Ministers of Justice or of Ministers or Attorney’s General of the Americas in preparing the draft Statutes of the Justice Studies Center of the Americas, which enabled the negotiations entrusted to the Special Group to be conducted efficiently and completed by the deadline.

Resolves:

To establish the Justice Studies Center of the Americas and to adopt the following

Chapter I
Nature

 Article 1

The Justice Studies Center of the Americas (hereinafter the “Center”) is an intergovernmental entity with technical and operational autonomy, established by resolution of the General Assembly of the Organization of American States (hereinafter the “OAS”) in fulfillment of the mandates set forth in the Plan of Action of the Second Summit of the Americas (Santiago, April 1998) and the recommendations adopted at the Meetings of Ministers of Justice or of Ministers or Attorneys General of the Americas (hereinafter “REMJAs”)

Article 2

The Center is governed by this Statute and its Rules of Procedure. lts activities shall be carried out in accordance with the policy guidelines reflected in the conclusions and recommendations of the REMJAs and, as appropriate, may take into account the pertinent mandates of the Summit of the Americas and resolutions of the OAS General Assembly.

Chapter II
Objectives and functions

Artícle 3

The objectives of the Center are:

  1. To facilitate the training of justice sector personnel;
  2. To facilitate the exchange of information and other forms of technical cooperation: and
  3. To facilitate support for the reform and modernization of justice systems in the region.

Article 4

The Center shall have the following functions, among others:

1.     To serve as a clearinghouse for the collection and distribution of information on national experiences pertaining to modernization and reforms of justice systems in the region;

2.     To carry out comparative analysis, research, on justice issues studies and facilitate their dissemination;

3.     To facilitate the dissemination of research and studies relating to justice in the Americas;

4.     To facilitate the training of justice sector personnel and the improvement of existing mechanisms for that purpose in the countries of the Hemisphere;

5.     To facilitate dissemination of information on teaching methods, model curricula, and training aids for personnel involved in the justice system;

6.     To facilitate the dissemination of relevant information on courses, seminars, fellowships and training programs; and

7.     To support cooperation related to the different systems of justice in the Hemisphere.

Article 5

In the performance of its functions, the Center shall take into account the different legal systems in the Hemisphere and, to the extent possible, shall use modern information technology as technical support for its operations. It shall also take into account the activities underway in this field at the international, regional, and subregional levels in order to promote cooperation and avoid duplication.

Article 6

In the event that REMJA does not meet in a particular year or period, the powers and functions assigned to REMJA by these Statutes will be performed through the General Assembly of the OAS.

Chapter III
Composition and headquarters

Article 7

All the member states of the OAS are members of the Center.

Article 8

Any permanent observer to the OAS and any national or international, govermental or nongovernmental, organization specializing in the subject area may become an associate member of the Center under terms and conditions established in the Rules of Procedure of the Center.

The asssociate members may participate in all activities of the Center. They may also participate in meetings of the Board of Directors with voice but without vote.

Article 9

The organizational structure of the Center shall consist of: a Board of Directors, the Office of the Executive Director, and such advisory groups as may be established in accordance with this Statute.


Article l0

The Center may enter into cooperation agreements with the member states of the OAS and other states, as well as, with international or national, governmental or nongvernmental, organizations, among others. Such agreements, which shall be approved by the Board of Directors and deposited with the General Secretariat of the OAS, shall specify the conditions and forms of participation in the Center´s activities, as well as the rights and obligations of the parties.

Chapter IV
The board of directors

Article 11

  • The Board of Directors shall be composed of seven rnembers elected in t heir personal capacity by the OAS General Assembly from among candidates nominated by the member states of the OAS. The way and means of ensuring representation on the Board of Directors for the host institution of the Center and for the associate mambers shall be determined by the REMJA on the basis of the recommendation of the Board of Directors.
  • The members of the Board of Directors shall serve for a three-year term; under no circumstances may they be re-elected for more than one consecutive term.
  • Vacancies that occur for reasons other than normal expiration of the term of office shall be filled at the next session of the OAS General Assembly.
  • Candidates for the Board of Directors shall be persons of high moral standing and with records of distinguished service in the fields of law, social science, education, or public affairs who have made important contributions to the development or implementation of justice system reform in their countries.
  • The Board of Directors should reflect the various legal systems in the Americas and, to the extent possible, different sectors of the legal affairs community.

 

 Article 12

The functions of the Board of Directors are as follows:

  1. To appoint and establish the compensation of the Director of the Center, with the approval of the REMJA, and ensure that the Director implements the pertinent conclusions and recommendations adopted by the REMJA; in addition it will be empowered to remove the Executive Director;
  2. To oversee the management of the Office of the Executive Director;
  3. To approve the draft annual work plan in conformity with REMJA guidelines and to submit the medium and long-term plans to the REMJA;
  4. To approve the Center´s annual program-budget and to submit to the REMJA medium and long-term financial policy proposals;
  5. To appoint an external auditor and review the external audit of the financial records submitted anually by the Executive Director;
  6. To draft, approve, and amend the Rules of Procedure of the Center;
  7. To establish, in consultation with the Office of the Executive Director, the advisory groups deemed necessary to implement the objectives of the Center;
  8. To perform any other functions entrusted to it by REMJA.
  9. To inform OAS member states through the REMJA, as well as the associate members and advisory groups, of the Center’s activities and submit an annual report to the OAS General Assembly; and
  10. Authorize the establishment of funds and accounts necessary for the operation of the Center.

Article 13

  1. The Board of Directors shall meet at least once a year at the headquarters of the Center.
  2. All member states of the OAS shall have the right to participate in meetings of the Board with voice but without vote.
  3. The advisory groups provided for in Article 15 of this Statute shall be invited to participate in these meetings with voice but without vote.
  4. The Chair of the Board of Directors shall be elected by an absolute majority of the members of the Board for the term specified in its Rules of Procedure.
  5. The necessary quorum for a meeting of the Board of Directors shall be an absolute majority of its members.
  6. On the Board of Directors, each member shall have one vote. The Board of Directors shall make every possible effort to reach its decisions by cosensus. When a decision cannot be reached by consensus, the Board shall adopt its decisions by a majority of votes of the members in attendance.

Chapter V
The office of the executive director

Article 14

  1. The Office of the Executive Director shall be the operational unit of the Center. It shall be composed of an Executive Director and staff.
  2. The Executive Director of the Center shall have the necessary professional, academic, and administrative experience necessary to fully discharge the responsibilities of the Center.
  3. The Director shall:
  • Be responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Center, including all personnel decisions and the implementation of the policies approved by the REMJA, in accordance with direction provided by the Board of Directors;
  • Direct efforts to mobilize financial resources necessary to implement the Center’s work plan;
  • Prepare and submit to the Board of Directors the draft annual work plan and program-budget of the Center, including projections for the medium and long term;
  • Implement the annual work plan within the resources allocated in the annual program-budget and any other resources obtained for that purpose;
  • Promote and represent the Center;
  • Serve as the Executive Secretary of the Board of Directors; and
  • Report regularly on the status of projects and activities and the results achieved in their implementation, on the management of the Center, and on specific funds and other resources entrusted to the Center.

4. The Executive Director of the Center shall exercise his or her functions for a period of four years, renewable for a single consecutive term.

5. The Office of the Executive Director shall function at the headquarters of the Center.

Chapter VI
Advisory groups

Article 15

The advisory groups established under Article 12 (g) may function at a site other than that of the Center. The requirements and terms of reference for their establishment shall be set forth in the Rules of Procedure.

Article 16

The findings and conclusions of the advisory groups with regard to the matters assigned to them shall be presented to the Board of Directors through the Executive Director of the Center.

Chapter VII
Budgetary and financial matters

Article 17

The Center and its activities shall be financed by voluntarv contributions provided by the OAS member states and by funds from other public and private sources.

To that end, the Board of Directors shall authorize the establishment of specific and fiduciary funds that may be required, such as those provided for in Articles 68 and 69 of the General Standards to Govern the Operations of the General Secretariat of the Organizations of American States.

Chapter VIII
Entry into force

Article 18

This Statute shall enter into force on the date of its adoptiont by the OAS General Assembly and may be amended only by that body.

Transitory provisions

First: For its first phase, the Center shall develop topics related to criminal justice, seeking to take advantage of the experience by other organizations in the Hemisphere in this area.

Second: The headquarters of the Center shall be selected by the REMJA based on the results of the assessments and the recommendations presented by the Board of Directors regarding the proposals made by member states.

To that end, the Board of Directors shall evaluate the site proposals of member states according to the following criteria, among other institutional affiliation, financial and/or in-kind support, staff support, and other contributions and facilities to be provided for the Center. Until a site has been selected, the Center shall operate at OAS headquarters.

Third: For the first Board of Directors, three members will be elected for three years, two for a two-year term, and two for one year, the terms to be chosen by lot.

Rules

Chapter 1 
General Rules 

Article 1 

These Regulations govern the operation of the Board of Directors of the Justice Studies Center of the Americas (hereinafter the “Center”), whose Statute was approved by resolution AG/RES. 1 (XXVI-E/99) of the General Assembly of the Organization of American States (hereinafter, the “OAS”). 

Article 2 

In case of conflict between the rules of the Statute of the Center and these Regulations the former shall prevail. 

Article 3 

Cases not provided for in these Regulations that are not in the Statute of the Center shall be resolved by the Board of Directors. 

Chapter II 
Composition 

Article 4 

The Board of Directors shall be composed of seven members elected in their personal capacity by the OAS General Assembly from among the candidates proposed by the member states of the Organization. 

Article 5 

The members of the Board of Directors shall serve their functions for a period of three years, and in any case, they may not be reelected for more than one consecutive period. 

Article 6 

The Board of Directors shall be partially renewed every year. 

Article 7 

The mandates of the members of the Board of Directors shall start as of the first of January of the year following their election by the OAS General Assembly. 

Article 8

There may not be more than one member of the same nationality in the election of members of the Board of Directors. 

Article 9 

Vacancies that occur for any other reason other than the normal expiration of the mandate of Board of Directors members shall be filled by the OAS General Assembly. In this case, the person elected to fill such vacancy shall start its mandate immediately and shall complete the period that corresponded to their predecessor. 

Article 10 

Before every election, whether it is to replace members due to the normal expiration of their mandates or to fill vacancies that occur for any other reasons, the General Secretariat of the OAS shall invite the governments of member states to present their respective candidates, if they so wish, within 30 days, with the pertinent biographical data, and it shall communicate all of this immediately to the governments. Subsequently, the General Secretariat shall present to the General Assembly a list of the candidates proposed, formulated in alphabetical order of the proposing countries with the respective biographical data on the candidates presented.

Chapter III 
Presidency and Vice Presidency 

Article 11 

The President of the Board of Directors shall be elected by an absolute majority of the members of the Board for a period of two years, or for the time that is necessary to fulfill the pending time period of its mandate as a member of the Board , if this should be less. 

Article 12 

The Board of Directors shall elect a Vice President by the absolute majority of its members for a period of two years, or for the time that is necessary to fulfill the pending time period of its mandate as a member of the Board , if this should be less. 

Article 13 

In case of the temporary absence of the President, the Vice President shall replace him or her. In case of the definitive absence of the President, the Vice President shall substitute for the pending time period to end the mandate and a new Vice President shall be elected, concurring the same order of subrogation and substitution. 

In case of definitive absence of the Vice President, the Board of Directors shall elect a Provisional President by an absolute majority of its members. 

Article 14 

The President and the Vice President may not be reelected for an immediate period. 

Article 15 

The election of the President and the Vice President shall be carried out in separate acts by secret vote. The Board of Directors shall deliver to each member a ballot with the names of all the members of the Board of Directors. Every member shall mark only one name with a cross. The President in office shall immediately proclaim the member who has obtained at least four votes as the one elected for the respective position. If no member is elected on the first vote with at least four votes, a second vote shall be held between the two members who have obtained the highest number of votes in the first round. In said second vote the person who has obtained the highest number of votes shall be elected. 

Article 16 

The functions of the Presidency are as follows:

  • To call the meetings of the Board of Directors, according to the Statute of the Center and these Regulations;
  • To call the meetings to order and adjourn them and to conduct the debates;
  • To draw up the agenda for the day and to submit the matters included therein for the Board of Directors’ consideration;
  • To give the floor to speakers in the order in which it has been requested;
  • To decide on questions of order that arise in debates of the Board of Directors;
  • To submit the points in debate that require a decision to a vote and to announce the results, according to the provisions of the Statute of the Center and these Regulations.
  • To inform the other members of communications received from the Meetings of Ministers of Justice or Ministers or Attorney Generals of the Americas (hereinafter “REMJAS”), from OAS Agencies, from governments of member states, from members of the Board of Directors, or others that are qualified in their opinion.
  • To represent the Board of Directors before other organizations, bodies, institutions and entities;
  • To attend periods of sessions of the OAS General Assembly and the REMJAS.
  • To be the intermediary among the members, or between them and other authorities, in all the cases that so require;
  • To give verbally or in writing the information other members request of it.
  • To submit the Center’s Report on the work performed in a specific period of time to the REMJA for its consideration; and
  • The other functions conferred thereon by the Statute of the Center, these Regulations, and those assigned by the Board of Directors.

Article 17 

At the beginning of each meeting period, the Presidency shall submit to the Board of Directors a report on the manner it fulfilled the powers and functions conferred thereon by the Regulations during the period the Board was in recess; and it shall submit for the consideration of the Board of Directors the order of priority of the matters to be discussed. 

Chapter IV
Functions 

Article 18 

The functions of the Board of Directors, besides the ones provided in the Center’s Statutes, are the following:

  1. To establish the rules for the operation of the Executive Directorate, and those deemed necessary for the fulfillment of the obligations that the Statutes have assigned to the Executive Director.
  2. To establish in an Annex to this Rules of Procedure, the grounds for the removal of the Executive Director.
  3. To establish in an annex to these Rules of Procedure the requirements, conditions and terms of reference for:
  • To approve the cooperation agreements the Center enters into with the OAS member states and other states, as well as international, national, governmental or non-governmental organizations, among others.
  • The establishment and operation of advisory groups.
  • The acceptance of national or international, governmental or non-governmental organizations, as associate members of the Center.

Chapter V 
Session Periods 

Article 19 

The Board of Directors shall hold at least one period of regular of meetings annually.

Article 20 

The Board of Directors shall also hold special periods of meetings when called by the OAS General Assembly or by the REMJA, or when the Board so decides in view of the importance and urgency of the matter or matters that have to be examined. The Presidency shall make the respective notification through the Executive Directorate. 

Article 21 

When the Board of Directors is in recess and any of its members proposes a special meeting period be held, the Presidency shall consult with the other members if they are in agreement that such meeting period be held. In case that at least four of the members are in agreement, the President shall perform the respective notification through the Executive Directorate. 

Article 22 

In the case foreseen in the prior article, the Presidency shall list the matters that shall be considered in the notification. The Board of Directors shall consider only those matters included in the notification. 

Article 23 

In special cases, the Board of Directors may hold its meeting periods in any other place it designates at the appropriate time, which is not the headquarters of the Center, with the vote in favor of at least four of its members. In case needed it shall first obtain, through the Executive Directorate, the agreement of the respective member state. 

Article 24 

When the meeting periods of the Board of Directors are held outside of the Center’s headquarters, the Board shall request from the Government and private or public entities of the country where they are held to provide the support and services necessary for the better development of said meetings. The headquarters institution shall support the coordination of the activities necessary to carry out these objectives. 

Article 25 

When the Board of Directors decides to meet outside of its headquarters, to hold special meeting periods or to carry out any other activity that involves expenses, it shall request from the Executive Directorate to adopt the necessary measures to supply the respective funds. 

Article 26 

Before closing each regular meeting period, the Board of Directors shall set the starting date for the next meeting period. In case this is not foreseen in that moment, record of this fact will be left in the respective resolutions.

Article 27 

During its recess, at the request of any of its members, the Board of Directors may decide, by a majority of five votes, according to an inquiry made by the Presidency for that purpose, and by means of any media, on the change of date of a regular or special meeting that has been previously and duly established. 

Article 28 

The extension of a regular meeting period beyond the date established originally for its closing shall require the vote in favor of at least five of its members. 

Chapter VI 
Meetings 

Article 29 

At the beginning of regular meeting period, the Board of Directors shall approve a work agenda. The subjects to be dealt with, may originate from resolutions adopted in the preceding regular meeting period, or by the respective REMJA. Other new matters can be included in the agenda, with the support of at least two of the Board members. 

Article 30 

All OAS member states, as well as the associate members, and the Executive Director of the Center shall have the right to participate in the meetings of the Board of Directors with voice but without the right to vote. 

Article 31 

The Board of Directors may invite the advisory groups foreseen in article 15 of the Statute of the Center to its meetings, and may also invite those organizations with a particular interest in the process of justice reform in the region, and request from them to make presentations over subjects of their competence. 

Article 32 

The bodies, entities or organizations not foreseen in the above provisions and whose competence is related to issues that are considered at the meetings of the Board of Directors, may attend such meetings, with the previous special authorization granted by the President of the Board of Directors. 

With this purpose, an application must be filed to the Board with at least 15 days prior to the relevant meeting is to be held. The rejection to this application must be explained and notification provided to the applicant, leaving a record of the same at the beginning of the respective meeting. 

Article 33 

The meetings of the Board of Directors shall be recorded in summarized minutes, that shall set forth the time and day; the names of members and other participants present; the matters discussed, decisions adopted, and statements expressly made to be included therein. 

Article 34 

The final reports of meetings held by the advisory groups shall include, in summarized form, the information referred to in the preceding paragraph. 

Chapter VII 
Quorum and Voting 

Article 35 

The quorum necessary to held a meeting of the Board of Directors shall be constituted by the absolute majority of its members. 

Article 36 

The Board of Directors may held preparatory meetings with the presence of three of its members. The preparatory meetings shall be merely deliberative. 

Article 37 

On the Board of Directors each member shall have one vote. Decisions shall be adopted by the vote of the majority of the members present at the meeting, unless specifically provided otherwise. 

Article 38 

Voting shall be carried out by raising one’s hand, but any member of the Board of Directors may request for a nominal vote, which shall be carried out following the order of precedence. There shall be secret votes in the cases and form provided in these Regulations. In all cases, the President may propose, with the agreement of the Board, other means to perform the voting. 

Article 39 

No member of the Board of Directors may interrupt the voting process, unless it is due to a question of order related to the manner in which the voting is being carried out. 

Article 40 

If announced at the time of voting, members of the Board of Directors shall have the right to include a justified vote, in favor or dissenting, after the principal decisions have been approved, and they shall deliver the text thereof within a period of no more than ten days. 

Chapter VIII 
Final Provisions 

Article 41 

These Regulations shall enter into force on the date of their approval by the Board of Directors. 

Annex of by-law 

For Associated Members of the Center 

Article 42

All entities indicated in article 8 of this Statute may be Associated Members of the Center with no limitations other than those indicated in these by-laws and those imposed on them by their own by-laws. 

Article 43

In order to become an Associated Member of the Center, an application must be presented to the Executive Director, expressing at least:

The institutional background of the applying entity, indicating the Principal representative and an Alternative, if one exists, the Board of Directors, legal personality, statutes or by-laws and operational, financial or organic links with any other kind of organization.

The reasons that motivate their interest in associating with the Center, as well as expressing the proposed contributions to be made to the organization. Contributions may consist of voluntary contributions, professional services or any other kind of benefits to the Center’s work.


Article 44

Once this application is submitted, it will be reviewed by the Executive Director, who may request that it be clarified or completed if background details have been omitted. In the same way, the Executive Director may request references on the entity from other institutions or entrust the entity itself to the attachment of a note with such references issued by a third institution known to the Center. Once this process is concluded, the Executive Director will produce a report to be transmitted to the Directive Council along with the application, the purpose being that the Council takes a decision regarding the proposed membership. 

Article 45

It will be the Council that makes the final determination whether to admit, reject, or require more details on the information presented by the applying entity. 

The resolutions issued by the Council with this purpose will be governed by the rules of Chapter VII of these By-laws and will not be open to appeal. 

Article 46

The Executive Director will be informed of the resolution that contains the Council’s decision, and will transmit the admission, rejection or condition of its application to the interested party. The resolution will specify the course of action to specify the contributions proposed by the institution. 

An organization will be understood to be an Associated Member of the Center once it receives an authenticated copy, attested to by the Director, of the resolution notifying its admission. 

The Executive Director must keep an open record of these resolutions, which will be updated every year and made known by means that insure its due knowledge between the Member States of the Center. 

The Executive Director must attend to the timely and suitable fulfillment of the contributions pledged by the organization. 

Article 47

The Executive Director may delegate one or more of the proceedings indicated in this chapter to the Executive Secretary of the Center. 

Article 48

The participation of the Associated Members at Council meetings is governed by that set forth in article 30 of the By-laws. 

Likewise, the Associated Members may submit documents, works, studies, proposals or written observations for the Council’s consideration, provided that these be transmitted to the Executive Secretary at least thirty days before the meeting of the Directive Council, if it is wished that these be incorporated in the respective agenda. 

The Executive Director jointly with the Secretary will consider the timeliness of the application and the relation of the subject contained therein, and will decide the inclusion of any of these documents in the Council meetings. Subsequently, the Secretary must give justified notice to the Associated Member of the result of its application and will list at the beginning of the Council meeting all documents presented with express indications of which will be undertaken in the session, save the exception in article 22 of the By-laws. 

For the effects of entering into cooperation agreements, the Associated Members will be governed by article 10 of the Center’s Statutes. 

Article 49

An Associated Member may renounce this condition after having advised the Executive Director in writing. 

For the effects of cessation of the exercise of rights and fulfillment of obligations, it is understood that an Associated Member stops being such 60 days after the reception by the Executive Director of the notice indicated in the first paragraph, at the headquarters of the Center. 

Once the renunciation is received, the Executive Director will proceed to annul the respective listing in the register of Associated Members and will inform the Executive Council of this in their next meeting. 

Likewise, associated members may cease to be so for non-fulfillment of the contributions offered. Such circumstances must be certified by the Executive Director and settled by the Directive Council 

Of the Consultant Group 

Article 50

Consultant Group will be understood to mean any public or private organization, national or international organization, or group of natural persons organized specifically for these effects, which is linked to the Center for a given time with regards to a specific subject which has been resolved by the Directive Council, having been proposed by the Executive Director. 

Article 51

The proposal of the Executive Director will specify the purpose and the time period for which the Consultant Group should be constituted, as well as a list of institutions or associations that could form it. This list should be accompanied by at least the following information:

Institutional and organic definition of the entity, clearly identifying its principal representative, and documents supporting its creation and legal personality, if it has one.

Mission, objectives and the context in which it will perform its activities.

Outline of a Work Plan which links its current work to specific functions of the Center.

Background and curricula confirming special knowledge and experience, in the case of natural person.

Article 52

With the purpose of confirming the constitution of a Consultant Group, the Executive Director, by Council mandate, will sign with the Group’s members a participation agreement, in which will be expressed:

  • The main purpose for its constitution.
  • The specific actions to be undertaken by the group, as well as the time period granted for completion.
  • The methods by which the results obtained will be verified.

This agreement will be exempt from the procedures indicated in article 10 of this Statute, without prejudicing the possibility that the Consultant group may enter into a cooperation agreement on a subject different from that which motivates its formation. 

Article 53

In the Council Meetings, the Consultant Groups will have the same rights as the Associated Members in accordance with the regulations in Chapter V of these By-laws. 

The results and conclusions of the work entrusted to them will always be presented to the Directive council by the Executive Management. 

Article 54

The permanency of the Consultant Group is subject to the conclusion of the work for which it was created, or that the time period indicated for this effect elapses with results that the Council deems insufficient and which do not merit an extension. 

Notwithstanding the previous, the Council may renew the participation agreement provided that new actions are proposed which are within the main purpose of its constitution and which are coherent with new requirements of the Center.

 

Headquarters Agreement

CONSIDERING:

That in the Plan of Action adopted during the Second Americas Summit, held in Santiago, Chile, in April 1998, the Heads of State and Government agreed to establish a Justice Studies Center of the Americas to promote the training of human resources, the exchange of information, and other forms of technical cooperation within the Americas, in accordance with the specific requirements of each country.

That in April 1999, the Permanent Council of the OAS established a Special Group charged with carrying out the Recommendations of the Annual Meeting of Justice Ministers and Ministers or Attorneys General of the Americas ( hereinafter referred to as REMJA), whose Report was presented  to the Permanent Council session of September 28, 1999, which concluded with the approval of the Draft Statutes of the Justice Studies Center of the Americas;

 

BEARING IN MIND

The Resolution of the General Assembly of the Organization of American States pronounced during its Twenty-sixth Special Session, held November 15, 1999, which established the Justice Studies Center of the Americas and adopted its Statutes;

 The request of the Government of Chile to be the headquarters of the said Center.

 That the III REMJA, in accordance with the authorities assigned to it in the Statutes of the Center, and bearing in mind the recommendation of the Board of Directors, decided that the headquarters of the Justice Studies Center of the Americas be established in Santiago, Chile.

 

THEREFORE,

The Government of Chile and the Justice Studies Center of the Americas have agreed upon the following:

Article I
Definitions

For the purposes of the present Agreement, the following terms are  defined as follows:

  1. “Government”, the Government of the Republic of Chile;
  2. “OAS”, the Organization of American States;
  3. “Center”, the Justice Studies Center of the Americas;
  4. “Program”, the set of activities undertaken by the Center in compliance with its objectives;
  5. “Competent Authorities”, the Authorities of the Republic of Chile in accordance with its laws;
  6. “The Center’s Headquarters”, the sites and/or premises occupied by the Center, regardless of the property owner;
  7. “Goods”, the furnishings, vehicles, rights, funds in any currency, assets, income, other resources and anything that may constitute the patrimony of the Center;
  8. “Records”, the documents of any nature or in any form, whether paper or electronic, that are the property of or in the possession of the Center
  9. “Board of Directors”, the highest body of the Center, comprised of seven members appointed by the General Assembly of the OAS;
  10. “Executive Director”, the person responsible for the general operations of the Center, appointed by the Board of Directors.
  11. “Local Personnel”, the persons hired locally by the Executive Director for professional, administrative or service duties;
  12. “International Personnel”, non-local persons hired by the Executive Director.  This group is further defined as:
  13. “Permanent International Personnel”, any non-Chilean personnel who regularly works for the Center for a period superior than one year
  14. “Non-Permanent International Personnel”, any non-Chilean person who works for the Center in Chile for a period of less than one year.

Article II
Objectives of the Center

The objectives of the Center are to promote the training of human resources, the exchange of information, the support of the processes of reform and modernization of the justice systems in the region and other forms of technical cooperation in the area of justice within the Hemisphere, in accordance with the specific requirements of each country.

The Center may not be utilized in any manner that is incompatible with its objectives and duties.

 

Article III

Legal Capacity

The Center shall have legal personality within the territory of the Republic of Chile and shall have full authority to:

  1. Enter into contracts;

  2. Acquire and dispose of moveable property and real property , and

  3. Initiate legal and administrative actions

The Center’s legal representation shall be exercised by the Executive Director or by a duly-appointed representative appointed by the Board of Directors

 

Article IV
Immunities and Privileges of the Center

The Government shall grant to the Center, its personnel, goods, funds and assets, the privileges and immunities contemplated in the Agreement.

 

Article V
Financial Facilities

The Center may:

  1. Have in Chile funds and currency of any type and open and maintain accounts in any currency

  2. Freely transfer its funds or currency within or outside the territory of the Republic of Chile.

 

Article VI
Exemption of Taxes and Other Charges

The Center, its goods, and assets are exempt from:

  1. All direct taxes. However, it must pay for the public services it uses
  2. Customs charges and prohibitions or restrictions on the importation or exportation of articles, publications, and goods intended for official use, which may not be marketed without authorization from the Government
  3. The payment of certain mandatory charges, such as contributions to the national social security system required of the employer, and of the registration of the Executive Director and of the permanent international personnel in said system.  

The previous notwithstanding,, all local personnel shall be subject to labor legislation and social security of the Republic of Chile.  The Center must make the provisional contributions corresponding to said personnel.

 

Article VII
Premisesand Records of the Center

The headquarters, premises, and records, as well as all documents in general that belong to or are in the possession of the Center shall be inviolable.
The previous notwithstanding, the Center shall not provide political asylum.

 

Article VIII
Communications

The Center shall have, within the territory of the Republic of Chile, for its official communications, both national and international:

  1. A treatment no less favorable than that granted by the Government of Chile to any international organization, in terms of tariffs and applicable rates for correspondence, cable grams, telegrams, telephonic communications, and others, and
  2. The right to send and receive its correspondence by mail or in special pouches with the same immunities and privileges granted to the mail and diplomatic pouches

None of the provisions of this Article may be interpreted as prohibitive of the adoption of appropriate security measures for purposes of public order

 

Article IX
Immunities and Privileges

  1. The Executive Director and the permanent international staff:
  2. Shall have immunity of jurisdiction in the exclusive exercise of their official duties;
  3. Shall be exempt from income taxes based on salaries, remunerations and compensations paid by the Center
  4. Shall have the right to import, free of customs duties and other taxes, prohibitions or restrictions on importation, household goods, including an automobile, at the moment of assuming their positions in Chile.  The same privilege shall be applied for importing an automobile for the use of the Center.  For the effects of the transference of the automobile, the general regulations established for the resident Diplomatic Corps shall be applied.
  5. The immunities and privileges extended in this Agreement are conferred in the interest of the Center to safeguard the independent execution of its operations.  The Center and its personnel shall cooperate with the Chilean authorities to promote justice, ensure the observation of the police regulations and refrain from any and all abuse of the immunities and privileges recognized under this Agreement.
  6. In no case will the immunity of jurisdiction established in  section 1 a) of this article be extended to acts that constitute an infraction or breach of the traffic regulations or labor laws in effect in Chile.
  7. The provisions made in  section 1 b) of this article shall be extended to the transitory international personnel.
  8. The members of the Board of Directors who are not host country nationals will have immunity of jurisdiction for the opinions they emit in the exclusive execution of their duties while within Chilean territory.

 

Article X
Settlement of Disputes

Any difference relative to the interpretation or application of this Agreement shall be resolved by the Parties through the pertinent consultations.  If the difference is not resolved through these channels within six months of their initiation, either Party may request arbitration.  Such decision shall be communicated to the other party in writing.

The arbitration board must convene within 30 days after the designations referred to in the following paragraph are made.  Within the said period, the Parties shall establish the jurisdiction of the board and establish the procedure to be followed.

Each Party shall name an arbiter of their choice and the two duly-named arbitrators will select a third, who will preside over the board.

In the event that one of the Parties fail to name an arbitrator within a period of 30 days from the date of the communication referred to in the first paragraph of this article, the other Party may request that the President of the International Court of Justice appoint that arbitrator.

The costs will be the responsibility of each Party.

Article XI
Final provisions, enactment, and amendments

  1. This Agreement shall become effective on the thirtieth working day from the day that the Executive Director of the Center receives written notification from the Government of Chile indicating the completion of the necessary Chilean constitutional procedures.
  2. Either of the Parties may request a consultation to amend the present Agreement.  All amendments shall be made by the mutual consent of the Parties and shall become effective in the same manner stipulated in the previous paragraph.
  3. This Agreement shall be effective indefinitely, and may be terminated by either Party via written notification of the other Party, with a minimum of six months anticipation of the intention to terminate said Agreement.

Without prejudice to the preceding provisions, the projects and programs in effect shall continue until their conclusion.  With respect to the disposal of the Center’s property, the parties shall agree upon a term not to exceed one year for the completion of its liquidation.  In both cases, the regulations stipulated in this Agreement shall continue in effect.

Signed in Santiago, Chile, on the twenty-second day of the month of January of the year two thousand one in four copies in Spanish and in English, all being equally authentic.

 

Quarterly Report

Year 2009
Quarterly Report 2009-4 (October - December, 2009)
Quarterly Report 2009-3 (July - September, 2009)
Quarterly Report 2009-2 (April - June, 2009)
Quarterly Report 2009-1 (January - March, 2009)


Year 2008
Quarterly Report 2008-4 (October - December, 2008)
Quarterly Report 2008-3 (July - September, 2008)
Quarterly Report 2008-2 (April - June, 2008)
Quarterly Report 2008-1 (January - March, 2008)

Year 2007
Quarterly Report 2007-4 (October - December, 2007)
Quarterly Report 2007-3 (July - September, 2007)
Quarterly Report 2007-2 (April - June, 2007)
Informe Trimestral 2007-1 (January - March, 2007)

Year 2006
Quarterly Report 2006-4 (October - December, 2006)
Quarterly Report 2006-3 (July - September, 2006)
Quarterly Report 2006-2 (April - June, 2006)
Quarterly Report 2006-1 (January - March, 2006)

Year 2005
Quarterly Report 2005-4 (October - December, 2005)
Quarterly Report2005-3 (July - September, 2005)
Quarterly Report2005-2 (April - June, 2005)
Quarterly Report2005-1 (January - March, 2005)

Year 2004
Quarterly Report2004-4 (October - December, 2004)
Quarterly Report2004-3 (July - September, 2004)
Quarterly Report2004-2 (April - June, 2004)
Quarterly Report 2004-1 (January - March, 2004)

Year 2003
Quarterly Report 2003-4 (October - December, 2003)
Quarterly Report 2003-3 (July - September, 2003)
Quarterly Report 2003-2 (April - June, 2003)
Quarterly Report 2003-1 (January - March, 2003)

Year 2002
Quarterly Report 2002-4 (October - December, 2002)
Quarterly Report 2002-3 (July - September, 2002)
Quarterly Report 2002-2 (April - June, 2002)
Quarterly Report 2002-1 (January - March, 2002)


Año 2001
Quarterly Report 2001-4 (October - December, 2001)
Quarterly Report 2001-3 (July - September, 2001)
Quarterly Report 2001-2 (April - June, 2001)
Quarterly Report 2001-1 (January - March, 2001)

Año 2000
Quarterly Report 2000-4 (October - December, 2000)

Reviews

INFORME DE REVISIÓN OPERATIVA DE MEDIANO PLAZO

PROYECTO CIDA No. A-032116 - CENTRO DE ESTUDIOS DE JUSTICIA DE LAS AMERICAS

Presentado a: Inter-American Program Americas Branch Canadian International Development Agency

Por: Paul Chambers, Consultor Superior
Consulting and Audit Canada
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

8 DE MARZO DE 2006

1.- Resumen Ejecutivo
2. Principales Conclusiones y Recomendaciones


1 Resumen Ejecutivo

El estado de derecho la aceptación en la sociedad del principio fundamental de que las leyes, más que aquéllos que las promulgan, son la base principal de la toma de decisiones sociales es el pilar del contrato social y de un sistema moderno de gobierno. Para proteger a los ciudadanos contra el uso arbitrario de actos de autoridad estatal o actos de otros fuera de la ley, es esencial contar con un sistema legal predecible con instituciones judiciales justas, accesibles y efectivas. En muchos paí­ses en desarrollo, instituciones legales débiles y la falta de normativa ponen en riesgo el desarrollo y contribuyen a la pobreza.

El proyecto de Reforzamiento Institucional en la Reforma de la Justicia Criminal (ISCJR) financiado por la Americas Branch de CIDA surgió de los compromisos adoptados por Canadá en la Cumbre de las Américas en la Ciudad de Québec respecto de "Justicia, Estado de Derecho y Seguridad Individual", que reconoció que el acceso igualitario a una justicia independiente, imparcial y oportuna es una piedra angular de la democracia y del desarrollo económico y social. La meta del proyecto ISCJR es contribuir al cambio de prácticas en el sistema de justicia penal para lograr una mayor transparencia y eficiencia así­ como mejores condiciones para el respeto a los derechos humanos de mujeres y hombres. El propósito del proyecto ISCJPR es fomentar acercamientos y practicas innovadoras que apunten a resolver problemas concretos en la implementación de reformas de la justicia penal en algunos paí­ses latinoamericanos.

La Revisión Operativa de Mediano Plazo del Centro de Estudios de Justicia de las Américas (CEJA) del proyecto de Reforzamiento Institucional en la Reforma de la Justicia Criminal (ISCJR) financiado por el CIDA se centró en aspectos claves respecto a los siguientes atributos de la iniciativa:

  • Consistencia con las prioridades de cooperación de CIDA;

  • Contribución a las prioridades de reforma de la justicia penal de los gobiernos nacionales, y

  • Logro de resultados, productos e impactos planificados.

La investigación y el trabajo en terreno para la Revisión Operativa de Mediano Plazo tuvieron lugar entre el 1 y el 25 de Febrero de 2006. El Consultor de la Revisión puso a prueba los resultados del proyecto en Guatemala, Honduras y Bolivia a través de entrevistas con funcionarios canadienses, ex-estudiantes que habí­an terminado los cursos ofrecidos por CEJA, y altos autoridades del sistema judicial de cada paí­s.

Las autoridades canadienses en Guatemala, Honduras y Bolivia no siempre estuvieron plenamente conscientes del rol de CIDA en el financiamiento de CEJA o las actividades de CEJA, pero respaldaron plenamente la participación canadiense y su apoyo a la reforma de la justicia, identificando las mejoras en el sector como un factor crí­tico para una mejor seguridad, dirección, protección de los derechos humanos y la marcha del desarrollo general de cada paí­s. Las entrevistas con otros donantes, ex estudiantes de CEJA y de las autoridades del sistema judicial nacional provocaron respuestas consistentemente positivas acerca del valor de los cursos ofrecidos, el éxito de su replicación en cada paí­s, y el valioso rol desempeñado por CEJA al complementar los esfuerzos de reforma de la justicia nacional con capacitación práctica y apoyo en la investigación.

La metodologí­a de CEJA para replicar los cursos en los paí­ses de origen de los graduados es única y ha demostrado ser altamente costo-efectivo. Se solicita a cada partí­cipe del curso que prepare un documento sobre la forma en que se aplica el contenido del curso a sus circunstancias especí­ficas y de ser de su interés, que presente una propuesta para replicar el curso en su paí­s. Se selecciona una cantidad limitada de las mejores propuestas. En Guatemala, una réplica del curso de capacitación para 48 jueces en Quezaltenango sobre las técnicas básicas del sistema de litigios se presentó al costo de $7.500. La Corte Suprema de Guatemala, responsable de la administración judicial, está ansiosa por obtener el respaldo técnico de CEJA para más cursos de replicación. Después de experiencias de éxito similares, el Presidente de la Corte Suprema de Honduras tiene una larga lista de nuevas propuestas que desea analizar con CEJA. El Director del sistema nacional de defensores píºblicos de Honduras y el Fiscal General de Bolivia desean que CEJA ayude dictando cursos para el nuevo personal profesional. Existe una gran demanda de ayuda del CEJA en los tres paí­ses visitados, todos los cuales participan en programas de reforma de la justicia a gran escala con apoyo internacional.

La estrategia de CEJA para la selección de estudiantes pone gran énfasis en reclutar partí­cipes que sean profesionales en medio del desarrollo de su carrera y relativamente jóvenes, inteligentes, dinámicos y comprometidos con el establecimiento del estado de derecho en sus sociedades. Ellos han formado el núcleo de una red impresionante de generadores de ideas en la esfera judicial latinoamericana, que pasarán a ser la siguiente generación de administradores superiores del sistema de justicia en la región.

CEJA integra en la capacitación sus investigaciones. Los hallazgos de los estudios de género y de personas indí­genas de CEJA fueron utilizados para diseñar nuevos módulos de capacitación que incorporaron estas áreas temáticas en el programa de estudio del curso. CEJA ha invertido fuertemente en tecnologí­a de información y ofrece un curso de aprendizaje ví­a Internet de seis meses. Graduados de este curso, que fueron entrevistados, lo encontraron conveniente, bien diseí±ado y fácil de usar con un acceso expedito a los instructores.

El monitor del proyecto ISCJR habí­a informado previamente que el proyecto estaba bien administrado y produciendo resultados más allá de lo esperado. La Revisión Operativa de Mediano Plazo confirmó sus informes de que CEJA estaba superando las metas originales de resultados del proyecto. CEJA tiene una fuerte administración del programa y de las finanzas y sus operaciones son eficientes y transparentes. Los sistemas de administración financiera y de la información son modernos, capaces de producir informes completos y al dí­a sobre el avance del proyecto y los desembolsos financieros (por actividad, resultados o centro de costos) y capaces de hacer un seguimiento del avance de cada estudiante individual no solamente por curso, sino además por un módulo separado del curso. El aprendizaje es valorizado, incorporándose procesos de retroalimentación / evaluación a los programas de capacitación e investigación, cuyos productos han obtenido reconocimiento a lo largo de América Latina por su alta calidad, relevancia y oportunidad.

CEJA todaví­a es una organización pequeña y joven. Está bien encaminada hacia su consolidación como un centro regional de excelencia, pero como prioridad necesita abordar el desafí­o de su sustentabilidad fiscal de largo plazo. CEJA se constituyó solamente con una base financiera de aportes voluntarios de Estados Miembros. Aunque CEJA ha formado un pequeño fondo de reserva, todaví­a tiene que crear un importante fondo de donaciones. CEJA ha complementado los aportes voluntarios con el financiamiento de donantes para proyectos de cooperación, asistencia técnica de costos recuperables, matriculas, etc., sin embargo, como era de esperar, ha pasado a depender del financiamiento de proyectos de corto plazo provenientes principalmente de EE.UU. y de Canadá (85% de su presupuesto). La dependencia de CEJA del financiamiento de proyectos podrí­a llevar a problemas en la cobertura de los costos centrales y en el largo plazo podrí­an traducirse en la búsqueda de contratos fuera de la competencia central de CEJA para aumentar el flujo de caja. CEJA deberí­a concentrarse sólo en lo que sabe hacer bien.

El Centro ha preparado un plan de financiamiento de largo plazo para la consideración de OEA, el que, una vez aprobado en los próximos meses, deberí­a resolver el dilema fiscal estructural a través de financiamiento institucional de la OEA o de estados miembros y a través de una campaña para obtener un financiamiento más diversificado de más donantes. Esta campaña deberí­a incluir una solicitud de aportes para crear un fondo adecuado de donaciones.

Aunque CIDA necesitará monitorear el avance en el frente fiscal, ha obtenido excelente valor por dinero en sus inversiones en CEJA en un sector en que los donantes bilaterales encuentran difí­cil operar. CIDA deberí­a considerar continuar financiando el Centro, el cual está preparado para proponer a la Agencia un proyecto de mayor plazo y de mayor presupuesto.

2. Principales Conclusiones y Recomendaciones

El proyecto ISCJR es consistente con una prioridad clave de desarrollo para los paí­ses latinoamericanos. Los programas de investigación y capacitación de CEJA son apreciados en toda la región. La metodologí­a de capacitación es efectiva y se beneficia con el proceso continuo de evaluación y revisión. Los proyectos que se han replicado multiplican en forma importante el impacto de los programas de capacitación de CEJA.

Los objetivos del proyecto ISCJR son prácticos, relevantes e importantes para el éxito de los programas de reforma a la justicia.

La administración del proyecto ISCJR demuestra altos niveles de eficiencia, efectividad y economí­a.

El ISCJR es un ejemplo sobresaliente del éxito en la cooperación Sur/Sur, que utiliza las experiencias de la reforma judicial de Chile y Argentina como modelos en el diseño de nuevos enfoques a las reformas en otros paí­ses latinoamericanos.

La administración y el control financiero de JSCR, el abastecimiento y la contratación, la selección y evaluación de estudiantes y los sistemas y procedimientos de control de calidad de la investigación y la capacitación son buenos. JSCR está bien administrado y opera en forma eficiente. La administración es dinámica y competente - un raro ejemplo donde ocupación y vocación se reúnen para producir un equipo de profesionales de primer nivel.

El desafí­o de JSCR será abordar su estrecha situación de flujo de caja sin diluir su mandato, tomando actividades fuera de su competencia central en la búsqueda de mayores ingresos (es decir, convertirse en una sociedad consultora). El valor agregado de JSCR es el proporcionar un respaldo continuo a la educación y capacitar profesionales de carrera del sistema de justicia que trabajen en implementar programas de reforma a la justicia en toda América.

CEJA deberí­a continuar evitando la investigación altamente teórica o puramente académica. El programa de investigación de JSCR deberí­a permanecer centrado en identificar los vací­os prácticos del sistema formal de educación legal y preparar a los practicantes de la justicia para sus futuros roles y responsabilidades diseñando cursos de capacitación reparadores que ayuden a superar estas deficiencias en los programas nacionales de educación judicial.

Los principales clientes de CEJA son las autoridades nacionales responsables de implementar la reforma a la justicia en cada uno de los estados miembros del Centro. CEJA deberí­a suscribir contratos con el Poder Legislativo de cada uno de sus paí­ses colaboradores para formalizar esta relación.

CEJA deberí­a continuar consolidando su posición como centro de excelencia y lí­der en los estudios de reforma a la justicia en Latinoamérica y el mundo. CIDA deberí­a estar en condiciones de considerar el continuar con su relación con CEJA, que está preparado para presentar una nueva propuesta a la Agencia. CIDA deberí­a considerar adoptar un aporte de cinco aí±os basado en un programa que brinde la oportunidad de respaldar el conjunto integrado de actividades del programa de JCSA en vez de un conjunto limitado de actividades. Se deberí­a dar prioridad a los paí­ses más pobres y menos desarrollados de la región que son de mayor interés para CIDA.

También serí­a valioso establecer un comité de donantes para analizar la forma de apoyar la implementación de la estrategia de financiamiento de largo plazo de CEJA. En su calidad de uno de los donantes principales de CEJA, Canadá podrí­a considerar tomar un papel principal en el establecimiento de este comité. Canadá en este caso deberí­a incluir a representantes de CIDA, la Misión Canadiense para la OEA y /o DFAIT, y el Ministerio de Justicia. El presupuesto de CIDA normalmente no incluirí­a las evaluaciones de las cuotas o los aportes de los miembros, los que más bien provendrí­an de Becas y Aportes de DFAIT o posiblemente incluso de las principales asignaciones del Ministerio de Justicia de Canadá como es el caso de PAHO (Health Canada) o el Instituto Inter-Americano de Cooperación de Agricultura (Agriculture Canada) donde el ministerio principal del gobierno administre el aporte de Canadá.

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